The age-old traditional health care practices are still relevant and are followed by communities across the countries. India's contribution remains exemplary in the growth of traditional health care systems. The present study reviews the strength of traditional health care systems and medicinal plants of India that has been contributing in health care not only from time immemorial but also makes it numero uno choice of community for curing many chronic diseases. An extensive literature survey was undertaken for compilation of information on the traditional systems of medicine in India, which include Ayurveda, Unani, homeopathy and Siddha. The careful investigation of information reveals that Ayurveda is one of the oldest systems of medicine evolved in India. It is a holistic system of treatment, which is an amalgamation of regular diet, use of medicine and following practices like exercise and behavior. The contribution of plants, as raw material for making medical formulations, is significant in the Indian systems of medicine, and over 6,500 species of plants are known to occur in India those are used by various streams of traditional health care practitioners. Attempts made by the Government of India in enriching and managing these age-old health care systems are also discussed.