Pedagogical Research
Research Article
2017, 2(1), Article No: 03

Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis

Published in Volume 2 Issue 1: 02 Sep 2017
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Abstract

The paper appraised the organization and administration of intramural sports programmes in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis. The descriptive research design of survey type was employed for the study. The population was all secondary school students and teachers in Ibadan Metropolis. The sample consisted of 500 respondents 40 public secondary schools and 10 private secondary schools from five local governments in Ibadan metropolis who were selected through multi stage, stratified and random sampling techniques. Modified Likert type questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by experts in human kinetics and lecturers in tests, measurement and evaluation who accessed the face and content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined through one shot test and later the data collected was subjected to Cronbach alpha statistic which yielded a reliability coefficient (r) of 0.87. The statistics used for data analysis include frequency counts, percentage and chi-square set at 0.05 alpha level. The result showed that scheduling was a significant problem of intramural Sports in Secondary Schools in Ibadan metropolis. Personnel, facilities and equipment were not significantly available for intramural sports in Ibadan metropolis. It was therefore suggested that physical education teachers should show more interest in intramural sports, and schools should provide more facilities and equipment for the programmes.

INTRODUCTION

The organization and administration of intramural sports in secondary schools in Nigeria can be traced to the colonial era and establishment of secondary schools in Nigeria. Intramural sports are sporting activities that organized and carried out within four-wall of an institution. The competition is opened to all registered students in such institution or establishment (Oyeniyi, 2014). Examples of intramural sports competition includes inter-house athletics competition, inter class, inter halls, inter departmental and others to list a few. On the other hand extramural sports are competitions organized among different schools, competition that involves two or more schools or institution. Examples of extramural sports are universities games, polytechnic games, world university games and others.

Most of the early secondary schools in Nigeria, established by the missionaries were adequately involved in both extramural and intramural sports programmes. Intramural sports programmes then were highly organized because most of the students were living in hostels. Then, the administrators believe in sports as unifying factor which could be used to bring all students together not minding the different levels or classes the students were. According to Alla and Ajibua (2012) sport is one of the unifying instruments that unites human being irrespective of age, sex or colour. Awosika in Oyeniyi (2012) and Wilfred (2015) posited that the growth of intramural sports in America and England inspired college and university administrators in Nigeria to embrace intramural sports programme and the programming of this laudable phase of the total physical education programme. It is imperative to state that participation in intramural sports make students to adequately make use of their leisure time. Asagba in Oyeniyi (2012) and Aluko and Adodo (2013) observed that the specific aim of athletics is to help all students take part in most physical education programmes and recreation according to their needs and wholesome interests. The major ingredients for having well organized intramural sporting programmes include scheduling, provision of facilities and equipment, personnel, funding among others.

Scheduling has to do with planning and proper management of time allocated for intramural sports. Observation of the researchers showed that most of the intramural programmes are not properly organized because of little involvement of the teachers. It was also observed that most of the sports masters usually focus on inter house athletics competition while others like inter class football matches, inter house games competitions are usually left out. Awosika in Adegun and Oyeniyi (2010) and Orunaboka and Ojulu (2105) posited that after school, lunch and evening hours may be the time for intramural sports programme. They stated further that other possible time include weekend, nights, during vocations and special one day event. Observation showed that all these periods are adequately utilized by private schools but are difficult to be executed by public schools due to the fact that most of the schools operate day schools.

Provisions of facilities and equipment are essential and are of vital importance in the conduct of sports programmes. Provision of standard facilities and equipment are essential prerequisite to participation and good performance in sporting activities at all levels (Society of Health and Physical Educators, 2013). Affirming the importance of facilities and equipment in the organization of intramural, Ituh in Oyeniyi (2012) stated that there must be availability of quantitative and qualitative facilities and equipment. In the light of this, it is therefore imperative to conclude that provision of facilities and equipment is quintessential to facilitating better participation in sporting programmes of which intramural is inclusive. However, in spite of the importance of facilities and equipment in the organization of intramurals, observation by the researchers showed that many private schools in Ibadan metropolis have no spaces for sporting facilities but make use of government facilities like stadium, recreational centers and other available open spaces.

Also in the organisation and administration of intramural sports, there is need for availability of well trained and qualified personnel. These personnel are to organize and supervise students’ programmes. The researchers observed that only few schools have trained physical education specialists to teach physical education as well as plan and organize intramural sports programmme. A curious look at the staff list showed that only twelve (30%) public schools have trained specialist while only (20%) private schools have trained personnel expected to handle intramural sports. The others that serve as sport officials are not trained and therefore have little knowledge of intramural sports. Alla and Ajibua (2012) opined that supervision will be effective if sound leadership is provided for physical education and sports programmes. In the light of all the problems associated with the organization of intramural sports programme in Ibadan metropolis the study therefore appraised the status of intramural sports programme in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were generated and tested.

  1. Scheduling is not a significant problem in the organization of intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

  2. Facilities and equipment are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

  3. Personnel are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

METHODOLOGY

The descriptive research design of survey type was adopted for the study. The population for the study was all teachers and students of public and private secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis. The sample for the study was drawn from 40 public and 10 private secondary schools in the five local government areas of Ibadan metropolis. The sample for the study was selected through random and stratified sampling techniques, making use of private and public schools as well as teachers and students as the strata. The selection of schools was done through random sampling technique, while stratified sampling technique was used in selecting private and public schools as well as ten participants (four teachers and six students) from each school. A total of 500 participants were selected for the study.

The research instruments were questionnaire and check list supported with observation. The questionnaire was validated by experts in human kinetics and lecturers in tests, measurement and evaluation who accessed the face and content validity of the instrument. The reliability of the questionnaire was done through one shot test, carried out in one of the schools not used for the main study. The data collected from the test was subjected to Cronbach alpha statistics and an r of 0.87 was obtained. The data collection was done on the spot through the help of research assistants. Chi-square statistics was used in analysing the data.

RESULTS

Hypothesis 1: Scheduling is not a significant problem of intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

 

Table 1. Scheduling of Intramural Sports.

Variable

N

Mean df

x2cal

x2tab

Scheduling

500

3

32.82

7.82

Intramural sports

500

p>0.05

 

Table 1 showed that the calculated chi-square of 32.82 was obtained. The obtained value of 32.82 is greater than the table value of 7.82 at 3 degree freedom. Therefore the null hypothesis that scheduling was not a significant problem in the organization of intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis was rejected. This implies that scheduling of intramural sports constituted a major problem in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

Hypothesis 2: Facilities and equipment are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

 

Table 2. Facilities and Equipment for Intramural Sports.

Variable

N

Mean df

x2cal

x2tab

Facilities and Equipment

500

3

48.99

7.82

Intramural sports

500

p>0.05

 

Table 2 showed that the calculated Chi-square of 48.99 was obtained. This shows that the calculated value of 48.99 is greater than the table value of 7.82 at 3 degree of freedom. Therefore the null hypothesis that facilities and equipment are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis was rejected. This shows that facilities and equipment are available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

Hypothesis 3: Personnel are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

 

Table 3. Facilities and Equipment for Intramural Sports.

Variable

N

Mean df

x2cal

x2tab

Facilities and Equipment

500

3

91.29

7.82

Intramural sports

500

p>0.05

 

Table 3 showed that calculated chi-square of 91.29 was obtained. The result revealed that the calculated value of 91.29 is greater than the table value of 7.82 at 3 degree of freedom. With this result, the null hypothesis that personnel are not significantly available for intramural sports in secondary school in Ibadan metropolis was rejected. The result therefore shows that personnel are available for intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis.

DISCUSSION

In most of the schools visited majority of the students’ participate in intramural programmes on their own without the teacher planning the programme for them. In most of the public schools there are no evening programmes since they are all day schools. On the other hand most of the private schools have a day set aside for intramural programmes within a week. This goes in line with the suggestion of Awosika in Adegun and Oyeniyi (2010) and Orunaboka and Ogulu (2015) who suggested that after school, lunch period and evening hours may be best time for intramural sports programme.

The result could be justified because all the public schools have facilities while the private schools without facilities have access to the stadium, recreation centers and open spaces to participate in intramural sports programme. Society of Health and Physical Educators (2013) opined that provision of standard facilities and equipment is essential prerequisites to participation and performance in sporting activities at all levels. Also, Ituh in Oyeniyi (2012) affirmed that there must be availability of qualitative and quantitative facilities and equipment.

However, observation showed that most of the available sports masters are not trained specialists, therefore lack adequate knowledge of organization of intramural sports programming. According to Alla and Ajibua (2012) supervisions will be effective if sound leadership is provided for physical education and sports programmes.

CONCLUSION

From the study it was discovered that scheduling is a significant problem of intramural sports in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis because most of the programmes were planned by the students most especially in the public schools with little inputs from the teachers. Most of the programmes are done during break and lunch periods. It was also discovered that facilities and equipment are available for the students but are grossly inadequate for the students’ population. Personnel are available for intramural sports programme but not all are trained specialists while those available for public schools were not evenly distributed among public secondary schools.

RECOMMENDATIONS

In view of the findings of this study, the following recommendations are suggested.

  1. Physical education teachers should show more interest in intramural sports and help students to organize the programme appropriately.

  2. More facilities and equipment should be provided for schools to encourage mass participation.

  3. There is need for a day to be set aside for mass sport participation in public secondary schools it is clone in some private schools.

  4. There should be even distribution of physical education teachers among public secondary schools.

  5. There is need for private schools to employ more qualified personnel for physical education.

  6. Federal, state and local governments should implement the federal government policy on sports as it affect primary and secondary schools.

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AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Abayomi B, Oyeniyi PO, Aina O. Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis. Pedagogical Research. 2017;2(1), 03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Abayomi et al., 2017)
Reference: Abayomi, B., Oyeniyi, P. O., & Aina, O. (2017). Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis. Pedagogical Research, 2(1), 03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
Chicago
In-text citation: (Abayomi et al., 2017)
Reference: Abayomi, B.O., Pat. Ola Oyeniyi, and O.O. Aina. "Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis". Pedagogical Research 2017 2 no. 1 (2017): 03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
Harvard
In-text citation: (Abayomi et al., 2017)
Reference: Abayomi, B., Oyeniyi, P. O., and Aina, O. (2017). Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis. Pedagogical Research, 2(1), 03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
MLA
In-text citation: (Abayomi et al., 2017)
Reference: Abayomi, B.O. et al. "Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis". Pedagogical Research, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017, 03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Abayomi B, Oyeniyi PO, Aina O. Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis. Pedagogical Research. 2017;2(1):03. https://doi.org/10.20897/pedre.201703
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