The Anthropology tradition, and the associated 'production of knowledge in the academic field, is relatively of recent origin in Bangladesh. The article intends to shed light on anthropology as becoming a separate field of knowledge through exploring the historical trajectories and significant transformations in Bangladesh. Anthropology remains a changing discipline in this country and as such, it continues to remain endlessly fascinating. The anthropological enterprises, in understanding social realities of this region, have begun in early fifties of the twentieth century. The early anthropological enterprises by individual scholars have paved the pioneering institutional pathways of engagement with anthropology in late seventies. The present article extensively reviewed these major anthropological enterprises in Bangladesh from a historical perspective, identifying changing subject matters and trends within this academic tradition, shifting patterns of interests, and depicting areas of activities and concerns of anthropology in this region. Drawing on the empirically grounded works, in Bangladesh and neighboring regions, the paper would allow the readers to assess the overall attainments and limitations of contemporary anthropology in Bangladesh. The article would critically analyze some of the existing dilemmas, contested issues, and contemporary theoretical and practical challenges of applying anthropological perspectives for accelerating development in Bangladesh.