Background: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) failure and kidney diseases are increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. However, despite the remarkable advance in health technology, where it has become possible to successfully screen patients and predict kidney progression, a large portion of the world population is still unaware of their disease and risk exposure. Mobile Health (mHealth) solutions associated with health campaigns and programs proved to be an effective mean to enhance awareness and behaviour change at individual and social level.
Objective: The aim of this survey was to present the results of an environmental scan of what has been happening in the field of kidney disease prevention campaigns in recent years, with a focus on the use of mobile health as a tool to enhance the campaign's effects on targeting people and change their behaviour.
Methodology: It was conducted a systematic and comprehensive review, combining experimental studies with theoretical perspectives, to look for evidence regarding the evaluation of kidney disease prevention campaigns. The databases consulted for the present survey were: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, SAGE Journals Online, and Web of Science among other sources, for an analysis period from January 2000 to June 2016.
Results: Concerning the 14 analyzed examples with impact on kidney disease prevention campaign evaluation, two main campaigns were referred: The World Kidney Day (WKD) campaign, and the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). The indicators used in this analisys were in most cases comparable regarding the campaign messages, objectives and interventions tools, although em both cases the use of mHealth or other technologies is residually comparing to other diseases prevention campaigns or programs.
Conclusions: This review pointed to the inexistence of behavioural change evidence as a target of the kidney disease prevention campaigns and their evaluation. General deficiencies concerning the use of technology to target and engage populations and lack of theory-based interventions, might have contributed for these results. This study highlights the need for reviewing the campaigns design and methodologies, redesigning strategies all over the campaign processes and the need of developing more tools and indicators, based on technology intervention for population's engagement on campaigns regarding kidney disease prevention.